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Know-how Growth: Its Evolution – eLearning Trade


Studying Tech: Fashionable Understanding Of Know-how

To grasp and make clear the essence of know-how, it’s acceptable to hint the historical past of its formation and the primary phases of its improvement. The issue of the origin of know-how is kind of advanced; there are numerous ideas on this matter.

Origin Of Know-how

One idea sees the origin of know-how as arising from the expedient human exercise and the necessity for a rational use of the technique of this exercise. One other idea of the emergence of know-how was supplied by O. Spengler. Method, in his opinion, comes from the joint exercise of enormous lots of individuals and is a means of organizing this exercise. Due to this fact, know-how ought to be thought-about not as a set of instruments, however as a means of dealing with them, that’s, virtually as itself a know-how.

An attention-grabbing idea of the origin of know-how was supplied by L. Mumford, who believes that gun and machine know-how are merchandise of biotechnology. By “biotechnology” is supposed every little thing an individual wants for all times. Method comes from the options of human functioning and, in its origin, is carefully associated to the origin of man. It was to begin with life-oriented, and solely then work-oriented. Method, geared toward manufacturing and energy, arose, in response to L. Mumford, a lot later.

One other authentic idea of know-how was put ahead by the scientist B. Porshnev. He believed that know-how arises because of the impersonal properties of human adaptation to the world. So, as an alternative of enamel and claws, an individual is pressured to make use of stones and sticks, that are thought-about as intermediaries: prototypes of contemporary technical gadgets. Plainly this model deserves particular consideration.

The primary cause for the emergence of know-how lies within the want of man to beat the restrictions of his nature and group, to extend the affect of his pure organs on the substance and forces of nature. In different phrases, the contradiction between the bodily group of man and the necessity to remodel nature with the intention to produce the fabric items required for his existence and improvement has change into the primary supply, the motivating drive, that decided human exercise to create the primary, primitive, archaic know-how. The entire level of the additional improvement of know-how lies in the truth that people intensify their affect on nature, constantly transferring a lot of labor features to technical gadgets. The next factors are essential for the philosophy of know-how.

Durations Of Technological Growth

1. The Period Of Handbook Know-how

On this period, the primary instruments had been of guide labor—instruments that continued and expanded the capabilities of pure human organs and strengthened them bodily whereas labor was of a guide nature. The primary features of manufacturing had been regulated by the topic and their succesful labor drive.

2. The Stage Of Mechanization And Machines

On this stage, the primary drive of manufacturing is machines, and man turns into the appendage, with many labor features transferred to machines. Labor right here is already mechanized. It’s throughout this era that technogenic civilization and industrial society are shaped.

3. The Period Of Automation

This started roughly within the second half of the 20 th century. Right here, the machines, because it had been, take an individual out of direct manufacturing, and partially or utterly exchange an individual with regard to lively participation in manufacturing. The employee on this case acts as an organizer, controller and “supervisor”, and it isn’t the bodily capabilities, however the power of mind, technical skills and data, their cultural and technical contribution, that turns into essential. It’s apparent that the work right here is automated.

It ought to be famous that pc know-how can also be, often, thought-about a sort of machine. In all probability, it’s nonetheless extra right to think about it as a comparatively impartial kind of know-how, opening the fourth stage in technical progress, involving a complete technical, technological and knowledge revolution.

L. Mumford, already talked about above, believes that the start of the second millennium of our period may be thought-about the start line of contemporary, and never historical, know-how. Based mostly on the expertise of European historical past, he identifies three potential technological divisions for the period:

  1. The technical period (1000–1750)
    Based mostly on the know-how of “water and wooden.”
  2. The paleo technical period (the second half of the 18th century to the center of the twentieth century)
    Based mostly on the “coal and iron” advanced.
  3. The neotechnical period (now persevering with)
    Makes use of the “electrical energy and alloys” advanced.

As you possibly can see, periodization is predicated on the primary kind of power utilized in know-how and the “substance” that occupies a central place within the creation of technical gadgets.



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